Table of Contents
Tourism is the business of hospitality and travel. Whether we are travelers or we are serving travelers’ needs, this exciting and demanding group of visitor services industries touches all of our lives.
Global tourism is now generally recognized as one of the largest industries in the world. And one of the most significant sources of employment and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Tourism particularly benefits the economies of developing countries, where most of the sector’s tourism jobs and businesses are being created. The tourism industry is useful to support the promotion and development of society and nation.
Investment Promotion: The travel and tourism industry is critical to the global economy. This resilient industry is a leading generator of jobs and tends to outpace the growth of other major industries including manufacturing, financial services, and retail.
Business & Product Development: Tourism is a complex service-driven global industry that is constantly evolving, and the skills and knowledge required to operate a tourism business are pertinent to its success.
Circuit & Route Development: The flow of people in and around a destination presents an important opportunity to enhance tourism’s ability to generate significant economic impact, especially in rural and remote destinations.
Tourism and touristic terms were initially used by the United Nations in 1937. The word tourism is retrieved from the word Tour. Which is rooted in the Latin word “Turns” meaning turning and rounding back and forth between the source and the destination; it has entered Spanish and French, and ultimately English through Greek. However, the word tourism emerged when middle-class people began to travel, and that’s when people got more financially and their life expectancies increased (Yavari, 2014). Different definitions are provided by organizations and individuals to identify tourists, which are referred to in the following. The term tourism refers to a collection of travels between sources and destinations for leisure, recreational, entertaining, sports, visual, commercial, and cultural purposes, in which the tourist is not at the destination for employment and permanent residence (Papeli Yazdi, 2014). In 1925, the Committee of the UN statistics recognized the following people as tourists:
In 1937, a special committee was established in Rome to examine some of the issues of the tourism industry and provided a definition for the term tourist: People who travel to a foreign country for a period of 24 hours or more are called tourists.
According to the United Nations definition, proposed by the International Tourism Conference in Rome, “A tourist or temporary visitor is someone who travels to a country other than his/her own country for recreation, resting, holidays, visiting interesting sites, medical and therapeutic reasons, business, sports, pilgrimage, visiting relatives, missions, and participating in the conferences; provided that his/her stay is not less than 24 hours at least, and not more than 3 months at most. In this regard, employment purposes are not considered. “(Rezvani, 2015).
At present tourism plays a fundamental role in the development and sustainability of peace in the world. It is an essential indicator of security and socio-economic condition in various countries of the world. The Constitution of the World Tourism Organization was approved in 1970, and this international organization was responsible for practicing tourism issues. Therefore, tourism has been introduced as an industry and vital force for mutual understanding, development of societies, and cultural interactions of nations. The World Tourism Organization is a distributional allocation whose main objective is to promote and develop tourism, with the consideration of economic development, international understanding, peace, and universal respect regarding human rights and fundamental freedoms without any distinctions in terms of race, the development of human resources and the increase in the number of tourists in the world. In addition, tourism emphasizes the cultural and moral values of the world’s nations by emphasizing cultural significances (Ziaei Bigdeli, 2016).
Due to its unique features, the tourism industry is renowned as a hidden export and smoke-free industry by scholars and experts. In recent years, the industry has been ranked third in the world’s major economic fields after the oil and automotive industries and as predicted by researchers, it will be the world’s largest industry and economic activity by 2020. Since tourism is a very important factor in income diversification, oil-rich countries and countries that have only one source of income should pay more attention to the tourism industry and should not easily neglect it.
Having an impact on the economies of the countries has led tourism to be regarded as one of the topics of dialogue between high-level foreign affairs committees. In other words, “diplomacy is based on tourism” and therefore has succeeded in gradually finding its place in international treaties and agreements. Given that the tourists need to go to embassies to enter the other countries, and governments have given different options to their ambassadors as their highest-ranking representatives, they, directly and indirectly, play a significant role in accepting tourists; therefore, the ambassadors take all aspects of the internal, external and regional issues of tourists into account by diplomacy and international relations because the implementation of “international relations or tourism diplomacy” will have a very direct and powerful impact on economic, political, cultural and social issues ( Moravej Khorasani, Bi ta).
If the economic diplomacy is interpreted as a technique of foreign policy and the domestic economy or, in other words, it is regarded as using foreign policy for the achievement of the goals of the domestic economy; the development of tourism in many countries requires the use of economic diplomacy in general and tourism diplomacy in particular. Therefore, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is dedicated to direct foreign economic relations, including internal decision-making and external negotiations through the abovementioned issues.
The direction and channelization of a diplomatic activity support the expansion of the foreign economy through marketing and extracting foreign business opportunities and investing and internationalizing business and space for the tourism industry (Faraji Rad, 2004).
If these items are implemented accurately by the head of the diplomatic body, they can expand the tourism space and markets. In fact, tourism is regarded as a process that can achieve the necessary dynamism through the short-term and long-term plans as well as the development of tourism and the mental and business cooperation of firms and institutions; it is possible to create new jobs in this field in order to solve the problem of unemployment and create social vitality among people.
For example, the expert decision-making can resolve the challenges ahead, and observe new horizons on a national, transnational, and global scale by changing and empowering the tourism infrastructure and through increasing the role of people in the implementation of tourism programs, or by involving the private sector and attracting domestic and foreign investment, reducing intermediary affairs, reducing the role and direct involvement of governments in the tourism industry, and reducing the performance of governments to implementation of three key principles of guidance, support, and oversight. Tourism does not mean the industry as a whole, but it is a set of industries that experience varying levels of dependence on tourists, and this dependence undergoes a transformation through the passage of time and space.
In the meantime, tourism development is affected by the systematic functioning of all economic, social, political, security and regulatory, and legal sectors, and so on. The diplomacy system of countries also has a unique and distinguished position related to other institutions and organizations in the very important category of tourism. International tourism is one of the most significant forms of tourism that has a significant, direct, and indirect relationship with the foreign affairs Department’s decisions; it is interpreted as tourism diplomacy in the specialized circles and can guide, channel, and facilitate international relations and platforms of the tourism industry.
International Relation for Tourism Development
Therefore, taking into account the needs of the countries, existing capacities, and the necessity of introducing unique tourist attractions in each country, it is imperative that the foreign ministers take deep, secure, and expert steps in the field of tourism diplomacy. Creation, improvement, development, and deepening of geopolitical relations with neighboring countries and other tourism markets in different parts of the world are regarded as priorities of the diplomatic and international relations along with economic diplomacy in general and capacity building in the field of the tourism industry, in particular. Pathologically, the operations of most countries in the field of economic diplomacy with an emphasis on tourism have not been successful up far, and still have a long way to reach the ideal point in terms of the potentials and actual capacities of tourism.
If we study prehistory or proto-history or archeology we will come to know that humanlike beings have been moving from place to place for about 1 million years. Historically, the ability to travel was reserved for royalty and the upper classes. From ancient Roman times through to the 17th century, young men of high standing were encouraged to travel through Europe on a “grand tour”. Through the Middle Ages, many societies encouraged the practice of religious pilgrimage, as reflected in Tales and other literature.
As early as the third millennium B.C., Egypt was a Mecca for travelers from the known world; they came to see the pyramids and other wonders of the prosperous and civilized country. Nobles sailed the Nile in small boats with comfortable cabins; on land they traveled in litters or chariots.
Tourism is not a new phenomenon for Hindus. In Sanskrit literature, there is found different terms for tourism derived from the root atan, which means leaving home for some time to other places. They had different types of tourism known as paryatan (going out for pleasure and knowledge), deshatan (going to places of religious importance). We get even many references of akhet (hunting) and vihara ( excursion).
International Relation for Tourism Development
Tourism History in Nepal
Tourism is the up growing industry in Nepal and its largest source of foreign exchange and revenue. Possessing eight of the ten highest mountains in the world, Nepal is a hotspot destination for mountaineers, rock climbers, and people seeking adventure. The Hindu and Buddhist heritage of Nepal and its cool weather are also strong attractions.
Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world, is located in Nepal. Mountaineering and other types of adventure tourism and ecotourism are important attractions for visitors. The world heritage site Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, is located in the south of the West region of Nepal (which despite the name is located in the center of the country) and there are other important religious pilgrimage sites throughout the country. The tourist industry is seen as a way to alleviate poverty and achieve greater social equity in the country.
During ancient times tourism in Nepal was from a different perspective. According to Buddhist literature, ‘Manjushree’, a Buddhist mystique, visited Kathmandu Valley, cut the Chovar Hill with his sword for the outlet of water. He drained the water and settled inhabitation. Manjushree is said to have come from Mahachin (China) and regarded as the first tourist visiting Nepal. It has been illustrated in the chronicle that Gautam Buddha visited Nepal during the reign of Jitedasti, the seventh Kirat King, who stayed in the western part, near Swayambhu. But Nepali historians don’t support this idea. There is no proof of Buddha’s Kathmandu visit.
Emperor Ashok too had visited Nepal. King Ashok visited Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha, and built the Ashok Pillar there. Then came to Kathmandu valley and built similar pillars in different places. Regarding the visit of Emperor Ashoka, he has visited Lumbini and Kapilvastu which was written in his inscription. He has placed another inscription in Niglihawa too. Kathmandu’s visit of Ashoka was only written in chronicles which were not regarded as a strong document in scientific history writing. It was not historically proved. Four Pillar found in Patan which was built in Ashoka style might be built by some others who were sent to build by Ashoka.
Lichchhavi period was regarded as the golden era from the tourism point of view. In the Lichhavi period (400 AD and after), there had been enormous progress of art and culture. Kailashkut Bhawan, Managriha, and Bhadradhiwas Bhawan were the major attractions of the Lichhavi period. The way in which art and culture were developing in Nepal during that period inspired Chinese travelers to come to Nepal and write about Nepal. The marriage of Bhrikuti and Srong-sten Gampo, the king of Tibet gave rise to the establishment of special relations between the two countries. As a result, it was natural for the people of these countries to travel from one country to the other.
Thereafter, Nepal was developed as the only route for a long period to visit China via Lhasa and travel from China to India via Lhasa. This led to the increase in arrivals of foreigners in Nepal. Famous Chinese traveler, Huien-Tsang, started the journey to India in 629 AD He returned to China via Nepal in 643 AD during his journey to Nepal; Huien-Tsang also visited Lumbini. In 643 AD, another Chinese traveller Li-Yi-Piao, came to Nepal via Lhasa and then visited India 242. Another Chinese traveller, Wang Hiuentse used to travel to and fro Nepal with his companions during 643-657 AD when he was envoy to India. Buddhist Monk, Monastic and preachers had visited Nepal during Lichchhavi period i.e. Shantarakshit in 742 AD, Padma Sambhav in 474 AD, Kamalsheel in 760 AD, Atisha Dipankar in 1040 AD and Milarepa in 1010 AD
The Mallas ruled Nepal after the Licchavis. This period is known as medieval history. During Malla period Christian missionaries came to Nepal with the purpose of spreading Christianity in Tibet. During this period until the reign of Jaya Prakash Mall, many westerners had visited Nepal for the purpose of missionary activity. In 1628, Portuguese Father Juan Cabral, during the reign of Laxmi Narshing Malla, ruler of Kantipur, a foreigner, entered Nepal for the first time in medieval period. Later, many missionaries came to Nepal with similar purpose. Since 1737 AD, King Jaya Prakash Malla provided written permission to Christians for the settlement and spreading Christianity in Kantipur. When Kathmandu valley was defeated by Prithivi Narayan Shah he ordered Christian Pastors and Nepali Christians to leave the country. On 4th February 1769, Pastor Giuseppe and 58 Nepali Christians left Kathmandu Valley and went to settle in India’s Bettiah, closer to the Nepal border. During those days, foreign tourists visiting Nepal were the European missionaries. Besides, Chinese, Tibetan and Indians used to visit Nepal especially with religious and commercial motives. Similarly, Nepalese traders used to go to Lhasa for business purposes and the Tibetan traders come to Nepal and vice-versa. Thus, religious and trading activity had contributed to the development of tourism in Malla period.
King Prithvi Narayan Shah united the petty hill states into unified and integrated Nepal in 1768 AD (1825 B.S.). Until the reign of King Prithivi Narayan Shah Nepal was closed for the foreigners especially the Europeans. After the treaty of Sugauli of 1816 AD, a British Resident, Dr. Wallich, was appointed in Kathmandu for developing Nepal’s relationship with British India. After this there were regular visits of British nationalities in Kathmandu. Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana visited Britain from 1850-51 AD which played a vital role in introducing Nepal to the western world. After then Sir Brian Hodgson and Sir Joseph Hooker had visited Nepal. French historian Silva Levy visited Nepal during the reign of Prime Minister Bir Shumshere. He wrote a book in French language about Nepal named History of Hindu Kingdom (which was translated in Nepali language by Dilli Raj Uprety). Percival Landon, during the reign of Prime Minister Chandra Shumsher had visited Nepal. Similarly, King George V and the Prince of Wales came to Nepal for hunting in the terai in 1911 and 1921 respectively. The earliest published record on foreign visitors to Nepal is found in Percival London’s book ‘Nepal’, where 153 Europeans mostly British are listed to have visited Kathmandu in a period of 44 years from 1881 to 1925. Despite these developments, the Rana rulers isolated Nepal from external influence till 1950.
The democratic movement of 1951 marked a new era in Nepal. In 1950/51, a popular democratic movement was launched which overthrew the Ranas. After this, changes were witnessed in the country. Nepali people were liberated and Nepal was opened for the visitors. With the formation of Tourism Development Boardin 1957, the history of tourism of Nepal has taken rapid momentum. Now, tourism has been recognized as a highly paying industry and very important source of earning. Nepal issued its first tourist visa to Boris Lisanevich, Russian legendary hotelier invited by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah to allow Thomas Cook Company to send tourist in Nepal. During 1951/52 Hotel Himalaya Inn, Hotel Paras Inn and Hotel Nepal started its service for the first time in Kathmandu though those hotels were not fully facilitated. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest. On In 1954 Snow View Hotel, in 1955 (Boris- the Russian established) “Royal Hotel” and began catering tourist. In the time of coronation of Late king Mahendra in 1956; he managed to organize assembly of large numbers of foreign dignitaries that exposed Nepal as potential tourist destination in international community. Till 1959 there were only 88 beds in the hotels for the foreigners. Floodgate opened in the Hotel industry after 1959. After 1959 Coronation Hotel, Imperial Hotel, Panorama Hotel and Green Hotel (Now Hotel Shanker) established in Kathmandu. Likewise, Hotel De’la Annapurna 1965, Soaltee Hotel-1966, Blue Star Hotel- 1968, Crystal Hotel-1972 was started in Kathmandu. The same year, National tourism council set up first five year tourism development plan under Ministry of industry and commerce. Royal Nepal Airlines Cooperation (RNAC) now Nepal Airlines Cooperation (NAC) was established in 1958 and became member of International Union of Official Travel Organization. During 1960’s Nepal began direct links to Indian cities First travel agency “Mountain Travel Nepal” now “Tiger Mountain” was established by Colonel Jimmy Robert (British). He also brought “Tiger Tops” operation in Chitwan National Park to accommodate tourist who enjoy jungle activities.
In 1972, Tourism master plan was formulated with German assistance that led to concept of spreading economic activity in Nepal. HMTTC, now Nepal Academy of Tourism & Hotel Management (NATHM) was established by Government of Nepal in 1972 aiming to produce skilled workforce required by hospitality and tourism industry. Chitwan National Park was officially established in 1973. During 1975-1991, Nepal became hot spot for holiday makers, adventure seekers and cultural tourist. The flow of tourist was in increasing trend. Nepal tourism board, official body of tourism development and promotion was established in PPP model. Different trekking and travel agencies, association, hotels began to appear in this time to facilitate increasing number of tourism demand. The following year of 1998, Nepal celebrated “Visit Nepal 98” which brought overwhelming numbers of tourist to Nepal. Downfall of tourism in Nepal started with hijacking of Indian airlines from Tribhuwan International Airport in 1999. In one hand because of the Royal massacre of 2001 and on the other hand, moist insurgency gave negative message in international arena that Nepal is not safe for tourism. Tourism slowly started to boom after 2006 when peace agreement was held with Maoist and the government. Nepal marked 2011 as “Nepal tourism year” with slogan “Naturally Nepal” when 736, international visitors visited Nepal. Similarly, Lumbini visit year was celebrated in 2012 giving message that Nepal is now safe for tourism. Nepal is expecting 2 million foreign visitors in 2020.
World Tourism Industry is an industry which is flourishing all over the world. There has been an exponential global tourism growth over the past six decade and globally, some 350 million new international tourist arrivals are expected by 2030, arrivals would reach 1.8 billion according to the UNWTO.
However it is now assumed that tourism activity will decline by 50% in the second half of 2020 bringing this year forecast of total export earnings from international tourism to $0.9 trillion down from $1.75 trillion in 2019. The world is facing an unprecedented global health, social and economic emergency as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Travel and tourism is among the most affected sectors with a massive fall of international demand amid global travel restrictions including many borders fully closed, to contain the virus.
According to the latest issue of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, International tourist arrivals (overnight visitors) fell by 72% in January-October 2020 over the same period last year, curbed by slow virus containment, low traveller confidence and important restrictions on travel still in place, due to the COVID-19 pandemic
The decline in the first ten months of the year represents 900 million fewer international tourist arrivals compared to the same period in 2019, and translates into a loss of US$ 935 billion in export revenues from international tourism, more than 10 times the loss in 2009 under the impact of the global economic crisis.
Tourism has a long tradition in sustainability-related initiatives, being one of the first sectors to establish definitions and principles for ‘sustainable tourism’, strategies, and action plans (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 1997).
Attempts to encourage the development and growth of tourism activities are often desirable because tourism creates jobs and brings money into a community or country. However, unplanned tourism growth can lead to problems. Although tourism can create greater cultural understanding and enhance economic opportunities, it may also change social structures; may place increasing demands on transportation systems, public services, and utilities; and may lead to environmental degradation.
Whether we are participants in or beneficiaries of (both positive and negative) tourism activities, we are all in one way or another affected by tourism. However, there is still a lack of understanding by the public of the impact of tourism on the environment.
The tourism industry in all of its dimensions depends on the policy of governments. This industry plays a very important role in the political development and the expansion of peace, as well as economic growth and development. Considering that the development of tourism is directly under the political decisions of governments. The development of tourism diplomacy and its implementation can lead to the arrival of tourists, employment, and economic prosperity, as a result of increased national income, and ultimately the establishment of a stable and guaranteed peace.
The main task of diplomacy is to protect the interests of the country in relations with the other countries and to develop relations with them. In this regard, the neighbors are of utmost importance because the way of establishing relations with them has a profound effect on ensuring national security, political, economic development, and the development of mutual relations. As a result, it can be made to improve the development of tourism and international relations:
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Our trips are fully supported and offered personalized service to our guests. If you’re interested to involve in these trips by your interest, time, and physical and mental preparation it’s fine.
Besides this, Hot Spring Trek, Trek near Kathmandu, Panchase Trek, Ghalegaun Trek, Chepang Hill Trek, Chisapani Nagarkot Trek, Ghorepani Ghandruk Trek are available.
Similarly, Annapurna Circuit Trek – 14 Days, Annapurna Base Camp Trek – 14 Days, and many more are in Annapurna Region.
Other hands, Everest Base Camp Trek – 12 Days, Everest Three Pass Trek – 17 Days are in Everest Region
In Langtang Region Holy Gosainkunda Trek – 6 Days, Langtang Valley Trek – 9 Days, Langtang Gosainkunda Chisapani Trek – 13 Days are available.
Manasalu Area Trek – 15 Days, Upper Mustang Trek – 14 Days, Nar Phu Valley Trek – 12 Days, Rara Lake Trek – 11 Days are in Restricted Region.
As well as Ganesh Himal, Kanchanjunga, Makalu Trek, and furthermore programs are organized by Robinson Crusoe Holidays.
Among the cultural programmed; Honeymoon Tour Package – 10 Days, Nepal Pleasure Tour – 8 Days, Adventure Package Tour – 14 Days, Historical Nepal Tour – 10 Days, Spiritual tour Package – 12 Days, Kathmandu Unique tour – 5 Days, Historical Gorkha Village Tour 9 Days, Nepal India Cultural Tour – 10 Days, Nepal Bhutan Tibet Tour – 12 Days.
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