Any nation’s tourism industry and the international community can benefit greatly from the International Relation on Tourism policy. The tourism industry will continue to thrive as a result of diplomacy and integration.
1. Tourism as an Introduction:
Travel and hospitality constitute tourism. This exciting and challenging sector of the visitor services industry has an impact on all of our lives, regardless of whether we travel or serve the needs of travelers.
Nowadays, global tourism is generally acknowledged as one of the world’s largest industries and one of the most significant contributors to employment and GDP. The economies of developing nations, where the majority of the tourism-related jobs and businesses are being created, receive particular benefits from tourism. The tourism industry helps to promote and advance both society and the country.
Promotion of Investing: The global economy is dependent on the travel and tourism sector. This resilient industry is a major job creator and tends to grow faster than other major industries like retail, manufacturing, and financial services.
Product and business development: The skills and knowledge required to run a tourism business are crucial to its success because tourism is a global, service-driven industry that is constantly changing.
Creating a Circuit and a Route: The flow of people into and around a destination presents a significant opportunity to boost tourism’s potential to have a significant economic impact, particularly in remote and rural areas.
International Relations and Tourism The United Nations first used the terms “tourism” and “tourism” in 1937. The Latin word “Turns,” which means “turning” or “rounding back and forth” between the source and the destination, is where the word “tourism” comes from. It has made its way into Spanish, French, and eventually English via Greek. However, middle-class travelers were the first to coin the term “tourism,” and as a result, people’s life expectancies also increased (Yavari, 2014). Organizations and individuals use a variety of definitions to identify tourists, which are referred to in the following. According to Paperli Yazdi (2014), the term “tourism” refers to a collection of travels between sources and destinations for leisure, recreation, entertainment, sports, visual, commercial, and cultural purposes in which the tourist is not seeking employment or permanent residence. In 1925, the following individuals were identified as tourists by the UN Committee on Statistics:
A special committee was set up in Rome in 1937 to look into some of the problems with the tourism industry and came up with a definition for the word “tourist”: Tourists are individuals who travel to a foreign country for at least 24 hours.
Tourism and International Relations:
“A tourist or temporary visitor is someone who travels to a country other than his or her own country for recreation, rest, holidays, visiting interesting sites, medical and therapeutic reasons, business, sports, pilgrimage, visiting relatives, missions, and participating in the conferences,” is the definition provided by the International Tourism Conference in Rome for the United Nations. if their stay is no shorter than 24 hours and no longer than three months at most. This means that employment purposes are not taken into account. 2015 Rezvani).
Tourism is currently a crucial factor in the growth and sustainability of global peace. In a variety of nations around the world, it is an essential metric for determining socioeconomic and security conditions. In 1970, the World Tourism Organization’s constitution was approved, and this international organization was in charge of dealing with tourism-related issues. As a result, tourism has emerged as an industry that plays a crucial role in fostering mutual understanding, the growth of societies, and cultural exchanges among nations. The World Tourism Organization is a distributional allocation with the primary goal of promoting and developing tourism, taking into account economic development, international understanding, peace, universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms without regard to race, the growth of human resources, and the increase in the number of tourists worldwide. Additionally, by emphasizing cultural significances, tourism emphasizes the cultural and moral values of the world’s nations (Ziaei Bigdeli, 2016).
The tourism industry is known as a hidden export and a smoke-free industry by academics and experts due to its distinctive characteristics. After the oil and automotive industries, the industry has ranked third in the world’s major economic fields in recent years. Researchers predict that by 2020, it will be the world’s largest industry and economic activity. Oil-rich nations and nations with only one source of income should pay more attention to the tourism industry and should not easily neglect it because tourism is a very important factor in income diversification.
2. Tourism-related international relations:
Tourism is regarded as one of the topics of discussion among high-level foreign affairs committees due to its impact on the economies of the countries. To put it another way, “diplomacy is based on tourism” and, as a result, has gradually found its way into international agreements and treaties. Since tourists have to go to embassies to enter other countries, and since governments have given their ambassadors different options as their highest-ranking representatives, they play a significant role in the acceptance of tourists, both directly and indirectly; Because the implementation of “international relations or tourism diplomacy” will have a very direct and powerful impact on economic, political, cultural, and social issues (Moravej Khorasani, Bi ta), ambassadors consider all aspects of tourists’ internal, external, and regional issues.
Tourism and international relations If economic diplomacy is viewed as a means of combining domestic economic policy with foreign policy—that is, as using foreign policy to achieve domestic economic goals—then The use of economic diplomacy in general and tourism diplomacy in particular is necessary for the expansion of tourism in many nations. As a result, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs focuses on direct economic relations with other countries, which includes internal decision-making and external negotiations around the aforementioned issues.
According to Faraji Rad (2004), the direction and channelization of a diplomatic activity aid in the expansion of the foreign economy by marketing and securing foreign business opportunities, as well as by investing in and internationalizing tourism-related businesses and space.
They have the potential to expand the tourism market and space if these measures are correctly implemented by the head of the diplomatic body. In point of fact, tourism is regarded as a process that, through the development of tourism, short-term and long-term plans, as well as the mental and business cooperation of businesses and institutions, can achieve the necessary dynamism; In order to alleviate unemployment and boost social vitality, it is possible to create new jobs in this sector.
Changing and empowering the tourism infrastructure, increasing the role of individuals in the implementation of tourism programs, or involving the private sector and attracting domestic and foreign investment, reducing intermediary affairs, reducing the role and direct involvement of governments in the tourism industry, and reducing the performance of governments to implementation of three key principles of guidance, support, and oversight are all examples of how expert decision-making can address the challenges that lie ahead and observe new horizons on a national, transnational, and global scale. The term “tourism” does not refer to the industry as a whole; rather, it refers to a collection of industries that have varying degrees of reliance on tourists, and this reliance changes over time and space.
In the meantime, the systematic operation of every economic, social, political, security, regulatory, and legal sector has an impact on tourism development. Countries’ diplomacy systems also hold a unique and distinguished position when it comes to other institutions and organizations in the extremely significant field of tourism. One of the most important types of tourism that has a direct or indirect impact on the decisions made by the Department of Foreign Affairs is international tourism; It can guide, channel, and facilitate international relations and tourism industry platforms and is interpreted as tourism diplomacy in specialized circles.
Therefore, it is absolutely necessary for foreign ministers to take extensive, secure, and expert steps in the field of tourism diplomacy, taking into consideration the requirements of the nations, the capacities that are already in place, and the requirement to introduce distinctive tourist attractions to each country. Along with economic diplomacy in general and capacity building in the tourism industry, in particular, the establishment, improvement, development, and deepening of geopolitical relations with neighboring nations and other tourism markets in various parts of the world are regarded as priorities of diplomatic and international relations. Pathologically, the majority of nations’ efforts in the field of economic diplomacy with an emphasis on tourism have not been very successful up to this point, and they still have a long way to go before they reach the ideal level in terms of the actual capabilities and potentials of tourism.
3. Tourism’s past:
We can learn from studying prehistory, protohistory, and archaeology that human-like beings have moved around the world for about a million years. In the past, only royalty and the upper classes were able to travel. Young men of high standing were encouraged to take a “grand tour” of Europe from the ancient Romans to the 17th century. Tales and other works of literature show that many societies during the Middle Ages promoted religious pilgrimage.
Egypt was a Mecca for travelers from the known world as early as the third millennium B.C. They came to see the country’s pyramids and other architectural wonders. The Nile was traveled by nobles in small, comfortable boats; They traveled on land in chariots or litters.
Hindus are not new to the phenomenon of tourism. Diverse terms for tourism derived from the root atan, which means traveling to other places for a time, can be found in Sanskrit literature. They had Paryatan (going out for pleasure and knowledge) and Deshatan (going to places of religious significance) tourism. Even references to Akhet (hunting) and vihara (excursion) are plentiful.
4. Nepal’s tourism history:
Nepal’s fastest-growing industry and largest source of revenue and foreign exchange is tourism. Nepal is a popular destination for adventure seekers, rock climbers, and mountaineers because it has eight of the ten highest mountains in the world. Nepal’s Hindu and Buddhist heritage as well as its cool climate are strong draws.
Nepal is home to Mount Everest, the world’s tallest mountain. Among the many ecotourism and adventure tourism options available, mountaineering is a major draw for tourists. Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautama Buddha, is a world heritage site in the south of the West region of Nepal, which, despite its name, is in the middle of the country. Other important religious pilgrimage sites can be found all over the country. The country sees the tourism industry as a means of reducing poverty and achieving greater social equity.
4.1 Tourism in Ancient Nepal:
In the past, tourism in Nepal came from a different angle. A Buddhist mystic known as “Manjushree,” according to Buddhist literature, visited the Kathmandu Valley and used his sword to cut Chovar Hill in order to create a water outlet. After draining the water, he settled in for the night. Manjushree is regarded as the first tourist to visit Nepal and is said to have come from Mahachin (China). The chronicle shows that Gautam Buddha went to Nepal during the time of Jitedasti, the seventh Kirat King, who lived in the western part of the country near Swayambhu. However, historians from Nepal disagree with this notion. There is no evidence that the Buddha visited Kathmandu.
As well, Emperor Ashok had been to Nepal. King Ashok made a trip to Lumbini, where Lord Buddha was born, and built the Ashok Pillar there. Then they traveled to the Kathmandu Valley and constructed identical pillars in various locations. According to his inscription, Emperor Ashoka visited Lumbini and Kapilvastu during his visit. Additionally, he has written another inscription in Niglihawa. Ashoka’s visit to Kathmandu was only recorded in chronicles, which were not considered reliable sources for writing scientific history. It was not demonstrated historically. The Four Pillar in Patan, which was constructed in the Ashoka style, may have been constructed by others who were assigned to it by Ashoka.
From a tourism standpoint, the Lichchhavi period was regarded as the golden age. Art and culture had made enormous strides during the Lichchhavi period, which began in 400 AD and continued on. The main attractions of the Lichhavi period were Kailashkut Bhawan, Managriha, and Bhadradhiwas Bhawan. The Chinese tourists were inspired to visit Nepal and write about it by the way Nepal’s art and culture were developing at the time. The union of Bhrikuti and Strong-sten Gampo, Tibet’s king, resulted in the development of special ties between the two nations. As a consequence of this, it was only natural for the people of these nations to relocate to other nations.
After that, Nepal was built as the only way to get to China through Lhasa and from China to India through Lhasa. As a result, more foreign nationals arrived in Nepal. Huien-Tsang, a famous Chinese traveler, set out for India in 629 AD. He returned to China through Nepal in 643 AD while on his way to Nepal; Lumbini was also visited by Huien-Tsang. Another Chinese traveler, Li-Yi-Piao, arrived in Nepal via Lhasa in 643 AD and then traveled to India 242. During the period from 643-657 AD, when he was an envoy to India, another Chinese traveler named Wang Hiuentse used to travel to and from Nepal with his companions. During the Lichchhavi period, Buddhist monks, monastics, and preachers had traveled to Nepal, including Shantarakshit in 742 AD, Padma Sambhav in 474 AD, Kamalsheel in 760 AD, Atisha Dipankar in 1040 AD, and Milarepa in 1010 AD.
After the Licchavis, Nepal was ruled by the Mallas. The medieval era is known as history. Christian missionaries arrived in Nepal during the Malla era with the intention of introducing Christianity to Tibet. Prior to Jaya Prakash Mall’s rule, a lot of Westerners had traveled to Nepal to carry out missionary work. During the reign of Laxmi Narshing Malla, ruler of Kantipur, in 1628, a foreigner named Portuguese Father Juan Cabral made his first appearance in Nepal since the Middle Ages. In time, numerous missionaries arrived in Nepal with the same goal. Christians have had written permission from King Jaya Prakash Malla to settle in Kantipur and spread Christianity there since 1737.
Prithivi Narayan Shah ordered Christian pastors and Nepali Christians to leave the country after his defeat in the Kathmandu Valley. Pastor Giuseppe and 58 Nepalese Christians left the Kathmandu Valley on February 4, 1769, and settled in Bettiah, India, which was closer to the Nepali border. Thus, during the Malla period, tourism had grown as a result of religious and commercial activities.
4.3 Tourism following Nepal’s unification (before 1950):
In 1768 AD (1825 B.S.), King Prithvi Narayan Shah brought the small hill states together to form Nepal, a unified and integrated nation. Prior to King Prithivi Narayan Shah’s rule, Nepal was off limits to foreigners, particularly Europeans. Dr. Wallich, a British resident, was appointed to develop Nepal’s relationship with British India following the 1816 Sugauli treaty. Following this, regular visits to British nationals in Kathmandu were made. From 1850 to 1951 AD, Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana made a trip to Britain, which was crucial in introducing Nepal to the Western world. Sir Brian Hodgson and Sir Joseph Hooker went to Nepal after that.
During the time that Prime Minister Bir Shamsher was in power, the French historian Silva Levy went to Nepal. History of Hindu Kingdom, a book about Nepal that he wrote in French and was translated into Nepali by Dilli Raj Uprety, is one of his works. During Chandra Shumsher’s time as Prime Minister, Percival Landon had traveled to Nepal. In a similar vein, in 1911 and 1921, respectively, the Prince of Wales and King George V traveled to Nepal to hunt in the terai. In Percival London’s book “Nepal,” 153 Europeans, mostly British, are listed as having visited Kathmandu over a 44-year period from 1881 to 1925, making it the earliest record of foreign visitors to Nepal. Despite these developments, Nepal remained under the Rana regime’s control until 1950.
4.4 Tourism in Nepal today following 1950:
Nepal entered a new era as a result of the democratic movement in 1951. A popular democratic movement overthrew the Ranas in 1950 and 1951. The country underwent shifts as a result. Nepal was made accessible to tourists and the people of Nepal were freed. The tourism industry in Nepal has developed rapidly since the Tourism Development Board was established in 1957. Tourism is now recognized as a lucrative industry with a significant income potential. Boris Lisanevich, a famous Russian hotelier who was invited by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah to allow Thomas Cook Company to send tourists to Nepal, received Nepal’s first tourist visa.
Hotel Himalaya Inn, Hotel Paras Inn, and Hotel Nepal began operations in Kathmandu for the first time in 1951 and 1952, albeit without full amenities. Tenzing Norgay, a Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer, and Hillary became the first confirmed climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest on May 29, 1953. Snow View Hotel opened in 1954; in 1955, Boris, a Russian establishment, opened the “Royal Hotel,” which began serving tourists. During the 1956 coronation of the late king Mahendra; He was successful in arranging the gathering of a large number of dignitaries from other countries, which helped establish Nepal as a potential tourist destination for the international community. Only 88 beds were available for foreigners in hotels until 1959. After 1959, the hotel industry experienced a flood.
In Kathmandu, the Coronation Hotel, the Imperial Hotel, the Panorama Hotel, and the Green Hotel—now the Hotel Shanker—were built after 1959. The Soaltee Hotel opened in 1966, the Blue Star Hotel opened in 1968, and the Crystal Hotel opened in 1972 all started in Kathmandu. The first five-year tourism development plan was created in the same year by the National tourism council, which was part of the Ministry of industry and commerce. In 1958, the Royal Nepal Airlines Cooperation (RNAC), which is now known as Nepal Airlines Cooperation (NAC), was founded and joined the International Union of Official Travel Organization. Nepal established direct connections to Indian cities in the 1960s. The first travel agency, now known as “Tiger Mountain,” was founded by British colonel Jimmy Robert. Additionally, he established the “Tiger Tops” operation in Chitwan National Park to cater to tourists interested in jungle activities.
The tourism master plan, developed in 1972 with assistance from Germany, led to the idea of spreading economic activity throughout Nepal. The Government of Nepal established HMTTC, which is now known as the Nepal Academy of Tourism & Hotel Management (NATHM), in 1972 with the intention of producing a skilled workforce for the hospitality and tourism industry. The official establishment of Chitwan National Park occurred in 1973. Between 1975 and 1991, tourists interested in culture, adventure, and vacations flocked to Nepal. The number of tourists was on the rise. Under the PPP model, the Nepal Tourism Board was established as an official body for tourism development and promotion.
As a result of the growing demand for tourism, a variety of travel agencies, associations, and hotels began to open. Nepal celebrated “Visit Nepal 98” in 1998, bringing a record number of tourists to the country. The 1999 hijacking of Indian airlines from Tribhuwan International Airport marked the beginning of the decline in Nepali tourism. Both the 2001 Royal massacre and the moist insurgency sent the negative message to the international community that Nepal is unsafe for tourism. After a peace agreement with the Maoists and the government was reached in 2006, tourism slowly started to increase. With the slogan “Naturally Nepal,” Nepal declared 2011 its “Nepal tourism year,” with 736 international visitors to Nepal. In a similar vein, in 2012, Lumbini Visit Year was observed, signaling that Nepal is now safe for tourism. In 2020, Nepal anticipates receiving 2 million foreign visitors.
Recent Tourism Trend:
The World Tourism Industry is a global business that is doing well. Over the past six decades, tourism around the world has grown at an exponential rate. By 2030, the UNWTO projects that there will be 1.8 billion new international tourists in the world, with 350 million new arrivals anticipated globally.
However, it is now presumed that tourism activity will decrease by 50% in the second half of 2020. As a result, this year’s forecast of total export earnings from international tourism will decrease to $0.9 trillion from $1.75 trillion in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global health, social, and economic emergency.
Relationship Between the World and Tourism Tourism is one of the most affected industries, with a significant drop in international demand as a result of global travel restrictions, including the complete closure of many borders to contain the virus.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, international tourist arrivals (overnight visitors) decreased by 72% in the first ten months of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. This decrease represents 900 million fewer international tourist arrivals compared to the same period in 2019 and translates into a loss of US$ 935 billion in export revenues from international tourism, more than ten times the loss that occurred in 2009 due to the effects of the global economic crisis. The latest issue of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer
Tourism’s Challenges and Opportunities:
One of the first industries to establish definitions, principles, strategies, and action plans for “sustainable tourism,” tourism has a long history of sustainability-related initiatives (United Nations World Tourism Organization, 1997).
Because tourism brings money and jobs to a community or country, efforts to encourage its growth and development are frequently desired. However, problems can arise from unplanned tourism growth. Tourism may alter social structures as well as increase economic opportunities and cultural understanding; may put an increased strain on public services, utilities, and transportation systems; and may cause harm to the environment.
International Relations and Tourism We are all impacted by tourism in some way, whether we participate in or benefit from (positive and negative) activities. However, the general public still lacks an understanding of the environmental impact of tourism.
All facets of the tourism industry are dependent on government policy. Both the expansion of peace and political development, as well as economic growth and development, are greatly influenced by this sector. considering that political decisions made by governments directly affect the growth of tourism. As a result of increased national income and, ultimately, the establishment of a stable and guaranteed peace, tourism diplomacy can result in the arrival of tourists, employment, and economic prosperity.
The primary goal of diplomacy is to strengthen and protect a nation’s interests in its interactions with other nations. In this sense, the neighbors are of the utmost importance because the way you build relationships with them has a big impact on national security, political and economic growth, and how well you get along with other people. Consequently, it can be made to advance tourism and international relations:
bolstering tourism industry economic integration through cluster planning and international tourist-free zones;
The necessity of deep convergence policies like easing and eliminating border controls, establishing mutual recognition standards for tourism-related goods and services, and deregulating international transportation regulations;
international agreements to fix business policies between countries;
enhancing the National Chamber of Commerce’s quality management of tourism services for the purpose of monitoring tourism businesses;
A good opportunity for diplomacy and international tourism relations is provided by holding both local events (tourism exhibitions, touristic villages, geoparks, technology parks, museums, and gardens in the countries’ vulnerable locations) and national and international events (national and international conferences).
Foreign ministers can continue to collaborate with international organizations like the World Tourism Organization, institutions that are similar to them, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that manage the smooth and unhindered flow of tourists from one nation to another.
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International Relation for Tourism Development
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International Relation on Tourism
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