International Relation for Sustainable Tourism

International Relation

We need to promote the international relation for sustainable tourism in the present globalized community with a different organization. In short, it is an attempt to explain behavior that occurs across the boundaries of states, the broader relationships. In which such behavior is a part, and the institutions (private, state, nongovernmental, and intergovernmental) that oversee those interactions.

Explanations of that behavior may be sought at any level of human aggregation. Some look to psychological and social-psychological understandings of why foreign policymakers act as they do. Others investigate institutional processes and politics as factors contributing to the externally directed goals and behavior of states.

International relations are the relations of states with each other and with international organizations and certain subnational entities. (e.g., bureaucracies, political parties, and interest groups). It is related to a number of other academic disciplines, including political science, geography, history, economics, law, sociology, psychology, and philosophy.


International Relation on tourism sectors: Tourism sector in particular by activating the role of international relations. Where tourism contributes to closer international relations, cultural, civilization, and economic relations between the various countries of the world, especially between neighboring countries, which lead to support peace, security, and stability between nations, tourism contributes also show the reality of the country and society world-wide in order to obtain gain positions and upheld the world towards political positions.

International Relation for Sustainable Tourism

Sustainable tourism: Sustainable tourism, one that establishes a suitable balance between the environmental, economic, and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, plays an important role in conserving biodiversity. It attempts to minimize its impact on the environment and local culture so that it will be available for future generations while contributing to generate income, employment, and the conservation of local ecosystems.

By doing so, sustainable tourism maximizes the positive contribution of tourism to biodiversity conservation and thus to poverty reduction and the achievement of common goals towards sustainable development.

Sustainable tourism provides crucial economic incentives for habitat protection. Revenues from visitor spending are often channeled back into nature conservation or capacity-building programmers for local communities to manage protected areas.

Furthermore, tourism can be a key vehicle in raising awareness and fostering positive behavior change for biodiversity conservation among the millions of people traveling the globe every year.

World Tourism Organization

Sustainable tourism is an industry committed to making a low impact on the environment and local culture while helping to generate future employment for local people. The positive of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development is a positive experience for local people; tourism companies; and tourists themselves.


The United Nations World Tourism Organization defines sustainable tourism as tourism that meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. Rather than being a type of product, it is an ethos that underpins all tourism activities. As such, it is integral to all aspects of tourism development and management rather than being an add-on component. The objective of sustainable tourism is to retain the economic and social advantages of tourism development while reducing or mitigating any undesirable impacts on the natural, historic, cultural, or social environment. This is achieved by balancing the needs of tourists with those of the destination.


International Relation for Sustainable Tourism

International Relation on Tourism: As more people struck out on adventures abroad and afar, international relations became an even more integral part of tourism and daily life than it had before. The debates and documentation surrounding this issue can clearly be seen in the government documents and brochures that are held in Leisure, Travel & Mass Culture: The History of Tourism, as well as in the individual accounts of holidaymakers and advice from travel agents.

Even in the early days of organized mass travel, the potential of travel agents, with their knowledge of foreign climes, was recognized and harnessed by government agencies. In 1884, John Mason Cook of Thomas Cook and Son was asked to assist in the attempt to retrieve General Gordon from his precarious situation in rebellious Khartoum (and advertised the opportunity to his customers in the Thomas Cook periodical Excursionist Home and Foreign Tourist Advertiser, American Edition, Series 34, Number 9).

As he also later went on to arrange a tour of Palestine for Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1898, though he, unfortunately, died of dysentery during his efforts. These events show that the relationship fostered between tourist agencies and the foreign countries they visited was being recognized and tourism itself was beginning to be seen as an important tool in international relations.

Moreover on International Relation for Sustainable Tourism

Tourism in Nepal was initiated since the time of the composition of Veda around 3500 BC. The scholars and sages used to write holy books with great meditations and penances and used to travel to popularize the findings. Veda was composed in Vyas Municipality of Nepal and popularized by many sages all over south Asia throughout the world.

During ancient times tourism in Nepal was from a different perspective. According to Buddhist literature, ‘Manjushree’, a Buddhist mystique, visited Kathmandu Valley, cut the Chovar Hill with his sword for the outlet of water. He drained the water and settled inhabitation. Manjushree is said to have come from Mahachin (China) and is regarded as the first tourist visiting Nepal.

It has been illustrated in the chronicle that Gautam Buddha visited Nepal during the reign of Jitedasti, the seventh Kirat King, who stayed in the western part, near Swayambhu. But Nepali historians don’t support this idea. There is no proof of Buddha’s Kathmandu visit. They are of the opinion that Buddha never visited Kathmandu. Emperor Ashok too had visited Nepal. King Ashok visited Lumbini, the birthplace of Lord Buddha, and built the Ashok Pillar there.  Then came Kathmandu valley and built similar pillars in different places.

Regarding the visit of Emperor Ashoka, he has visited Lumbini and Kapilvastu which was written in his inscription. He has placed another inscription in Niglihawa too. Kathmandu’s visit to Ashoka was only written in chronicles which were not regarded as a strong document in scientific history writing. It was not historically proved. Four Pillar found in Patan which was built in Ashoka style might be built by some others who were sent to build by Ashoka.

In the Lichchhavi period (400 AD and after), there had been enormous progress in art and culture. Kailashkut Bhawan, Managriha, and Bhadradhiwas Bhawan were the major attractions of the Lichhavi period. The way in which art and culture were developing in Nepal during that period inspired the Chinese travelers to come to Nepal and write about Nepal. The marriage of Bhrikuti and Strong Gampo, the king of Tibet gave rise to the establishment of special relations between the two countries.

As a result, it was natural for the people of these countries to travel from one country to the other. Thereafter, Nepal was developed as the only route for a long period to visit China via Lhasa and travel from China to India via Lhasa. This led to the increase in arrivals of foreigners in Nepal.  Famous Chinese traveler, Huen-Tsang, started the journey to India in 629 AD He returned to China via Nepal in 643 AD during his journey to Nepal; Huien-Tsang also visited Lumbini. In 643 AD, another Chinese traveler Li-Yi-Piao came to Nepal via Lhasa and then visited India 242.

Another Chinese traveler, Wang Hiuentse used to travel to and fro Nepal with his companions during 643-657 AD when he was an envoy to India. Buddhist monks, Monastic and preachers had visited Nepal during the Lichchhavi period i.e. Shantarakshit in 742 AD, Padma Sambhav in 474 AD, Kamalsheel in 760 AD, Atisha Dipankar in 1040 AD, and Milarepa in 1010 AD.

The Mallas ruled Nepal after the Licchavis. This period is known as medieval history. During Malla period Christian missionaries came to Nepal with the purpose of spreading Christianity in Tibet. During this period until the reign of Jaya Prakash Mall, many westerners had visited Nepal for the purpose of missionary activity. In 1628, Portuguese Father Juan Cabral, during the reign of Laxmi Narshing Malla, ruler of Kantipur, a foreigner, entered Nepal for the first time in the medieval period.

Later, many missionaries came to Nepal with a similar purpose. Since 1737 AD, King Jaya Prakash Malla provided written permission to Christians for the settlement and spreading Christianity in Kantipur. When Kathmandu valley was defeated by Prithivi Narayan Shah he ordered Christian Pastors and Nepali Christians to leave the country. On 4th February 1769, Pastor Giuseppe and 58 Nepali Christians left Kathmandu Valley and went to settle in India’s Bettiah, closer to the Nepal border.

During those days, foreign tourists visiting Nepal were European missionaries. Besides, Chinese, Tibetan, and Indians used to visit Nepal, especially with religious and commercial motives. Similarly, Nepalese traders used to go to Lhasa for business purposes and the Tibetan traders come to Nepal and vice-versa. Thus, religious and trading activity had contributed to the development of tourism in the Malla period.

King Prithvi Narayan Shah united the petty hill states into unified and integrated Nepal in 1768 AD (1825 B.S.). Until the reign of King Prithivi Narayan Shah Nepal was closed for the foreigners especially the Europeans. After the treaty of Sugauli of 1816 AD, a British Resident, Dr. Wallich, was appointed in Kathmandu for developing Nepal’s relationship with British India. After this, there were regular visits of British nationalities in Kathmandu.

Rana Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana visited Britain from 1850-51 AD which played a vital role in introducing Nepal to the western world. After then Sir Brian Hodgson and Sir Joseph Hooker had visited Nepal. French historian Silva Levy visited Nepal during the reign of Prime Minister Bir Shamsher. He wrote a book in the French language about Nepal named History of Hindu Kingdom (which was translated into the Nepali language by Dilli Raj Uprety). Percival Landon, during the reign of Prime Minister Chandra Shumsher, had visited Nepal.

Similarly, King George V and the Prince of Wales came to Nepal for hunting in the terai in 1911 and 1921 respectively. The earliest published record on foreign visitors to Nepal is found in Percival London’s book ‘Nepal’, where 153 Europeans mostly British are listed to have visited Kathmandu in a period of 44 years from 1881 to 1925. Despite these developments, the Rana rulers isolated Nepal from external influence till 1950.

The democratic movement of 1951 marked a new era in Nepal. In 1950/51, a popular democratic movement was launched which overthrew the Ranas. After this, changes were witnessed in the country. Nepali people were liberated and Nepal was opened for visitors. With the formation of the Tourism Development Board in 1957, the history of tourism of Nepal has taken rapid momentum. Now, tourism has been recognized as a high-paying industry and a very important source of earning.

Nepal issued its first tourist visa to Boris Lisanevich, a Russian legendary hotelier invited by King Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah to allow Thomas Cook Company to send tourists to Nepal. During 1951/52 Hotel Himalaya Inn, Hotel Paras Inn, and Hotel Nepal started their service for the first time in Kathmandu though those hotels were not fully facilitated. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest.

In 1954 Snow View Hotel, in 1955 (Boris- the Russian established) “Royal Hotel” and began catering tourist. At the time of the coronation of Late king Mahendra in 1956; he managed to organize an assembly of large numbers of foreign dignitaries that exposed Nepal as a potential tourist destination in the international community. Till 1959 there were only 88 beds in the hotels for foreigners.

A floodgate opened in the Hotel industry after 1959. After 1959 Coronation Hotel, Imperial Hotel, Panorama Hotel, and Green Hotel (Now Hotel Shanker) were established in Kathmandu. Likewise, Hotel De’la Annapurna 1965, Soaltee Hotel-1966, Blue Star Hotel- 1968, Crystal Hotel-1972 was started in Kathmandu. The same year, the National tourism council set up the first five-year tourism development plans under the Ministry of industry and commerce. Royal Nepal Airlines Cooperation (RNAC) now Nepal Airlines Cooperation (NAC) was established in 1958 and became a member of the International Union of Official Travel Organization.

During the 1960’s Nepal began direct links to Indian cities First travel agency “Mountain Travel Nepal” now “Tiger Mountain” was established by Colonel Jimmy Robert (British). He also brought the “Tiger Tops” operation in Chitwan National Park to accommodate tourists who enjoy jungle activities.

In 1972, the Tourism master plan was formulated. It was with German assistance that led to the concept of spreading economic activity in Nepal. HMTTC, now Nepal Academy of Tourism & Hotel Management (NATHM) was established by the Government of Nepal in 1972 aiming to produce a skilled workforce required by the hospitality and tourism industry. Chitwan National Park was officially established in 1973.

During 1975-1991, Nepal became the hot spot for holidaymakers, adventure seekers, and cultural tourists. The flow of tourists was in increasing trend. Nepal tourism board, an official body of tourism development and promotion was established in the PPP model. Different trekking and travel agencies, association, hotels began to appear at this time to facilitate the increasing tourism demand. The following year of 1998, Nepal celebrated “Visit Nepal 98” which brought overwhelming numbers of tourists to Nepal. The downfall of tourism in Nepal started with the hijacking of Indian airlines from Tribhuwan International Airport in 1999.

On one hand, because of the Royal massacre of 2001 and on the other hand, moist insurgency gave the negative message in the international arena that Nepal is not safe for tourism. Tourism slowly started to boom after 2006 when the peace agreement was held with Maoists and the government. Nepal marked 2011 as “Nepal tourism year” with the slogan “Naturally Nepal” when 736, international visitors visited Nepal. Similarly, the Lumbini visit year was celebrated in 2012 giving a message that Nepal is now safe for tourism. Nepal is expecting 2 million foreign visitors in 2020. But, due to the pandemic situation visit, the year 2020 is not successful.

International Relation for Sustainable Tourism

Conclusion: ‘Sustainable tourism’ or ‘tourism in the green economy has been defined as tourism activities that can be maintained indefinitely in their environmental, social, economic, and cultural contexts and despite their effect on these areas of life (UNEP & UNWTO, 2005). The ILO’s definition of sustainable tourism is, that it is “composed of three pillars: social justice, economic development, and environmental integrity. It is committed to the enhancement of local prosperity by maximizing the contribution of tourism to the destination‘s economic prosperity, including the amount of visitor spending that is retained locally.

It should generate income and decent employment for workers without affecting the environment and culture of the tourists’ destination and ensures the viability and competitiveness of destinations and enterprises to enable them to continue to prosper and deliver benefits in the long term”. Sustainable tourism, as something all tourism activities should aim for, should be distinguished from eco-tourism, which is a sub-sector of tourism focusing on travel activities that contribute to environmental protection and social development

The discursive production of categories of “development” and “underdevelopment” in the mid-20th century served as justification and pretext for simultaneous pushes for democratization, Westernization, and neo-liberal economic policy. So, transnational tourism and “development” practices in post-colonial spaces promote and rely upon each other, creating constant tension between expectations to “develop” and tourist requirements of authenticity/exoticism. Utilizing Foucauldian, Constructivist, and Post-Colonial scholarship, cultural and ethnic tourism in “developing” or “transitioning” countries is contingent upon the commodification of local culture and environment.

Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus-building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary.

Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them.

Our service for our guest

If you’re interested to involve in these trips by your interest, time, and physical and mental preparation it’s fine.

Besides this, Golden Nepal Triangle Tour, Hot Spring Trek, Trek near Kathmandu, Panchase Trek, Ghalegaun Trek, Chepang Hill Trek, Chisapani Nagarkot Trek, Ghorepani Ghandruk Trek are available.

Similarly, Annapurna Circuit Trek – 14 Days, Annapurna Base Camp Trek – 14 Days, and many more are in Annapurna Region.

Other hands, Everest Base Camp Trek – 12 Days, Everest Three Pass Trek – 17 Days are in Everest Region

In Langtang Region Holy Gosainkunda Trek – 6 Days, Langtang Valley Trek – 9 Days, Langtang Gosainkunda Chisapani Trek – 13 Days are available.

Manasalu Area Trek – 15 Days, Upper Mustang Trek – 14 Days, Nar Phu Valley Trek – 12 Days, Rara Lake Trek – 11 Days are in Restricted Region.

As well as Ganesh Himal, Kanchanjunga, Makalu Trek, and furthermore programs are organized by Robinson Crusoe Holidays.

Among the cultural programmed; Honeymoon Tour Package – 10 Days, Nepal Pleasure Tour – 8 Days, Adventure Package Tour – 14 Days, Historical Nepal Tour – 10 Days, Spiritual tour Package – 12 Days, Kathmandu Unique tour – 5 Days, Historical Gorkha Village Tour 9 Days, Nepal India Cultural Tour – 10 Days, Nepal Bhutan Tibet Tour – 12 Days.

According to your time duration and schedule, please go to our Plan Trip or Customize Trip.

Robinson Crusoe Holiday is always ready to provide excellent services for our guests. Based on our cultural motto “Matri Debo Bhaba, Pitrii Debo Bhaba, Atithi Debo Bhaba.” Mother as a God, Father as a God, and Guest as a God.

Posted by

Kapil Banjara

Kapil is been working for 7 years in the tourism industry as a professional tour guide. He is a resource person of Nepalese society and politics with culture and tourism under Tribhuvan University for 8 years.
Kapil has also published a tourism-related book titled “Nepalese society and politics with culture and tourism” from Buddha Publication. He has been completed his master’s degree in different social subjects such as Population Studies, Political Science, Educational Planning and Management, and sociology.

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